An Avant-Garde Approach to the Exhibit of Objects in the Charlotte Moorman Archive

 Posted by  Conservation Treatment, exhibition preparation, Exhibits, Outreach, Preservation Management, Uncategorized  Comments Off on An Avant-Garde Approach to the Exhibit of Objects in the Charlotte Moorman Archive
Apr 292016

Northwestern University Libraries’ Preservation and Conservation department was caught up in a seven-month whirlwind of activities in preparation for the Mary & Leigh Block Museum of Art’s current Charlotte Moorman exhibits, “Feast of Astonishments,” curated at the Block Museum, and “Don’t Throw Anything Out,” organized by Special Collections Curator Scott Krafft.

Mary & Leigh Block Museum of Art publicity poster for "A Feast of Astonishments"

Mary & Leigh Block Museum of Art publicity poster for “A Feast of Astonishments”

Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections holds Charlotte Moorman’s extensive archive which includes thousands of items: correspondence, posters, films, objects, notebooks, answering machine tapes, photographs, and artifacts from the many avant-garde art pieces that she performed. Currently, 243 of these objects are exhibited at Northwestern’s Block Museum and will travel to New York University’s Grey Art Gallery and Fales Library and then onto Salzburg’s Museum der Moderne.

Some of the most problematic materials for display were a pair of motorized propellers, a doorbell-operated electric bikini, and three masks used by Moorman when performing Nam June Paik’s “Opera Sextronique.” Six violins shattered by Moorman when performing Paik’s “One for Violin” were also tricky. The objects are not considered “art” themselves, but rather props for or evidence of performance art. Because of this status, the exhibit curators did not want traditional looking mounts. Afraid it would take away from the ephemeral nature of the items, the curators preferred that the objects just lay inside of the cases.

However, we were concerned that the handling of these fragile multi-piece materials would be safer and easier if mounted. We needed innocuous exhibit mounts for non-traditional objects that would also keep the items safely in place during travel. In addition, the collection had not been fully processed so the objects would not have appropriate storage housings once back at Northwestern. Creating one plan that would encompass exhibition, travel, and storage needs was a little avant-garde.

After creative brainstorming, multiple mock-ups, and consultation with curators, we had a plan. We sewed the objects onto padded panels and then used the panels to secure the objects inside their boxes.   Mounting panels 1” larger than the objects were constructed using Tycore boards, topped with Volara® foam, and covered in cotton cloth.

The objects were sewn on using various colored and transparent threads and some discrete Volara® supports. The storage boxes were stable enough for travel but compact enough to fit on the shelf.

When we unveiled our work to the Block Museum staff, they were suitably impressed by our craftsmanship and inventiveness. And frankly, so were we. For the Charlotte Moorman exhibits, we ventured into a level of exhibit preparation new to us. We gained new skills, enjoyed working closely with each other, and shared in the avant-garde spirit of Charlotte Moorman.

Jul 102015


Northwestern University Library is home to one of the largest collections of original source materials relating to the Siege and Commune of Paris (ca. 1870-1871). The collection includes newspapers, books, posters, pamphlets, caricatures, and photographs. During 2013-14, a large-scale project was undertaken to digitize over 1200 of the photographs, now viewable here. Many of these photographs are housed in albums which needed to be stabilized before they could be safely handled and imaged. In order to capture information on the backs of the photos, such as photographers’ stamps and handwritten notations, the decision was made to temporarily remove the photos from the albums wherever possible and scan them individually. As Project Conservator for the Siege Digitization project, my role was to treat the damaged albums and act as the conservation liaison. I worked closely with Special Collections and Digital Collections staff to develop a streamlined workflow for tracking the albums and consulted on safe handling techniques.

The first phase of the project was to treat a dozen damaged photo albums prior to re-cataloging and digitization. As professional conservation ethics dictate, all treatment needed to be minimally invasive and retain as much of the original structure as possible. Additionally, the repairs needed to be sturdy, since the albums would be handled by multiple people during the cataloging and digitization processes. Efficiency was also important, as the goal was to have all albums treated within three months in order to stay on track with the project schedule.

No two albums in the collection are alike, making this project a nice overview of 19th century album structures. Approximately half of the albums have thick, laminate pages with pre-cut windows into which mounted photographs, like cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards, may be inserted. The remaining albums contain photos adhered directly to the pages. The albums exhibited the kind of damage one would expect to find in a collection of commercially-produced albums that have been handled extensively over the past 140 years, including worn covering material, damaged spines and endcaps, splitting joints, and detached boards.

Many of the pre-cut windows were torn at the edges, evidence that the photographs had been previously removed and replaced. In some instances the photos were misaligned or slipping out of their windows. The photographs themselves, the majority of which are albumen prints, are in fair condition; most exhibit some discoloration and fading but only a very few are bent or torn.

Treatment of the albums included surface cleaning, spine and joint repairs with toned linen and long-fiber paper, consolidation of the leather and board corners, and hinge repairs to reinforce board attachment. Some repairs, like mending the torn edges of the pre-cut windows, were postponed until after completion of the digitization phase of the project.

About six months after the treatment phase of the project was complete, we moved on to phase two, removing photos from the window albums for individual scanning. The goal was to set up a workflow that would minimize handling of the fragile photographs and allow for streamlined movement and tracking of the albums between Special Collections, Preservation, and Digital Collections.

The initial plan was to place each photograph in a thin Mylar® sling, allowing for easy removal and replacement by digitization staff. However, we determined that the bulk and weight of adding so much Mylar® to the albums would strain the already weak bindings. Also, having the Mylar® slings there might encourage more handling of the photos in the future, which we are hoping to discourage by providing high-quality digital surrogates. Our solution was to have each album pass through the conservation lab on its  way to and from the imaging studio. I removed each photograph by slipping a thin bone folder underneath to help ease them out of the windows. Each photo was placed in a numbered paper folder and sent to Digital Collections for scanning.

This image below illustrates the workflow for this phase of the project. (Click to enlarge. Note: SPEC = Special Collections, DC = Digital Collections.)

Project Workflow

Project Workflow (click to enlarge)

At first glance, this seems like a lot of back and forth and possibly not the most streamlined approach, but it turned out to be advantageous in a number of ways. Most importantly, it meant that I was the only person doing the actual removal and replacement of the photos, minimizing the risk of further damage to the album pages. Another advantage of this particular workflow was that the albums were returned to the conservation lab after being scanned, which allowed me to complete treatments—like mending torn pages—once the photos had been replaced. It was also a chance to check up on treatments completed six months earlier. The albums had been handled extensively by multiple people since I’d last seen them and I was happy to observe that most of the repairs remained intact. In the few instances where my previous repairs turned out to be not quite sturdy enough, I had the opportunity to perform touch-up treatment before sending the albums back to Special Collections.

Another success of this project was improved communication between the three departments. Digital Collections shared their Google Docs project calendar with me so that I would know when to expect the next albums being routed to the conservation lab, which helped me plan my work and keep the project running on schedule. As a result of the Siege project and other similar efforts, both Special Collections and Digital Collections staff are increasingly likely to ask Preservation staff for advice on safe handling and consultation on a range of material- and condition-related issues.

Jun 092015

Throughout the year, the Preservation Department selects materials from the circulating and special collections for deacidification. We discuss priorities with curators and pinpoint book and paper collections that may be acidic and would benefit from the process to add an alkaline buffer that neutralizes the acids. While single-item treatment is performed in-house, our deacidification vendor, Preservation Technologies, LP, processes the larger collections.


Art Collection staff came to us with a mass deacidification project to address collection materials that have acidic binders. These board binders were sewn or stapled onto small paperback books, most likely done in the 1940s-60’s. They identified 1,400 items with these binders. There are several challenges of dealing with such a large amount of books: time, space, and access.

The project was initiated as the conservation lab was closing for renovation, and this seemed like a great project to start during that time since we can process mass deacidification shipments in other spaces. But even with lab access, there is not room to store 1,400 items – especially as the project would take around a year to complete, roughly estimating. Adding to this, all of the items are circulating and should not be off the shelf and unavailable for that long.

In order to efficiently handle all of these factors we decided to start with a small sample shipment of 150 items to get an idea of how this project would proceed. After evaluating the group, we realized only 30% of the items could be deacidified. The remaining books had clay coated pages (which cannot be treated) or were already brittle. While the original aim was to deacidify the entire collection, it became clear that the majority of the project would instead focus on binding, shelf preparation, and enclosures. The workflow would require a high level of item evaluation to decide how to process each individual book.

The resulting treatment of the each book varies. Some books are deacidified then commercially bound; some books can only be removed from their acidic covers and pamphlet sewn or boxed; other items may just need deacidification. Making such individual decisions for each item requires good organization and detailed tracking. Clear and frequent communication with coworkers within Preservation and Art and our vendors is also necessary.

Working through a collection of this size is always a challenging task and attention to detail is necessary with the multiple phases of this project. Though the majority of the books cannot be deacidified, the collection will benefit from the numerous rehousings and enclosures to address the preservation needs of hundreds of old and ephemeral titles.



May 222015


Last week, Preservation Department staff attended the American Institute for Conservation of Artistic and Historic Works (AIC) annual meeting in Miami, FL. Conservators Stephanie Gowler and Susan Russick presented two 5-minute talks during the pre-conference STASH FLASH Tips Session. STASH – which stands for Storage Techniques for Art, Science and History Collections – is a website where collection care professionals across all fields can share tips on creating safe and appropriate storage solutions for collection materials.

Stephanie and Susan shared examples of how the Preservation Department at Northwestern adapts traditional methods of documentation, housing, and labeling for non-traditional library materials. Today’s blog post will summarize the first presentation, outlining the department’s protocol for housing objects in the library’s distinctive collections. Check back next week for a summary of the second presentation, about using a smartphone app to document condition issues during a collection survey.

As discussed in the inaugural blog post, the collections at Northwestern University Library are changing. More objects are being acquired and curators want them to be interfiled with the books and papers on the shelf. Housings are also changing as new products are available and are being used in new ways. Unfortunately, the library building, with structurally integrated shelves that can’t be moved, is not changing.

This situation has led to the development a boxing protocol which takes into account the object needs, storage location, use, and marking. While neither the protocol nor the boxes produced are groundbreaking, considering these factors before beginning a project has resulted in safe, easy to manage, and versatile housings for the collection.

1Irregular - Copy

Petri dishes sent from Nam June Paik to John Cage. Correspondence files, John Cage Collection, Northwestern University Music Library.

The first step is to determine the needs of the object. Special consideration is given to irregularly shaped or multi-part objects. For example, the above “letter” written on a petri dish from Nam June Paik to John Cage needed to be interfiled with other correspondence in a legal size document box. This glorified folder made of corrugated board and Volara® foam with a Velcro® closure is stored vertically, like a file folder in sequence with the rest of the correspondence.

Fragile or reactive materials also get special consideration for housing. When chemically reactive materials are present, such as the tarnishing silver foil used for stamping this book, a chemical absorbent can be included in the housing. The cards that line this traditional drop-spine box can be easily detached and replaced when exhausted.

After determining the object’s needs, the storage location is identified. The department created a document that records all measurements for the various shelving and filing furniture around the building; it is critical for planning. Shelf and object dimensions are used to determine standard sizes for each housing project.


Flat file drawer dimensions that inform folder sizes.


The use of the objects is also important. The library’s Commedia dell’Arte masks made by Antonio Fava are the only materials in Special Collections to circulate. The handles are laced through box tops to keep parts of the housing together and make them easy to carry.

Students may check out these Commedia dell'Arte masks for performances.

Students may check out these Commedia dell’Arte masks for performances from the Charles Deering McCormick Library of Special Collections.

Objects and boxes are marked in several ways. Items themselves often get ownership marks, call numbers, or donor information. Boxes are marked with ownership, item identification, and other information. Photographs on labels allow browsing in the stacks without opening boxes.

While handling is usually intuitive, sometimes more complex housings require instructions. This box was produced for a very heavy glass and wood award. It was given a “sewing machine” style of box to manage the base weight, so labeling on both the interior and exterior was needed.

The condition, context, and use of an item is balanced with storage limitations when creating housings. Northwestern’s continual acquisition of all shapes and sizes of objects will bring more opportunities to hone the department’s skills at building creative housings.