Scott W Devine

Scott W. Devine is the Marie A. Quinlan Director of Preservation and Conservation at Northwestern University Library, where he has worked since 2006. He holds a Masters of Information Science with an Advanced Certificate in Conservation Studies from the University of Texas at Austin and received additional training in rare book conservation at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. and at the Centro del bel libro in Ascona, Switzerland. He is a Professional Associate of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC).

Jan 132016

A current paintings conservation project, made possible by a generous grant from the Alumnae of Northwestern, has opened the door to learning more about John Singer Sargent, his lifelong friendship with Charles Deering, and the story behind the creation of one of Sargent’s last large scale society portraits.

Charles Deering (1852-1927) was a renowned art collector, friend and patron of many leading artists of the late 19th and early 20th century. He collected significant works by lifelong friends such as John Singer Sargent, Anders Zorn, Carl Larsson and Lucien Simon. The library holds twelve paintings donated by the Deering family to be displayed in the Charles Deering Memorial Library when it opened in 1933. Of these paintings, John Singer Sargent’s Mrs. Augustus Allhusen, a portrait of Dorothy Stanley Allhusen painted at Sargent’s London studio in the autumn of 1907, is one of the best known and most appreciated.

When the painting was surveyed in 2013 as part of a larger collection survey, it was noted that the existing natural resin varnish had yellowed, dulling the tonal qualities of the painting. It was decided that removing or thinning the varnish layer and applying a fresh synthetic resin varnish layer, a common practice in paintings conservation, would allow viewers to once again see the painting as Sargent intended it to look when he created it over 100 years ago. In addition, repairing areas of minor distortion to the canvas will stabilize the painting and allow it to be displayed once again in Deering Library or loaned for exhibitions at institutions worldwide when requested.

We have noted often on this blog that the changing nature of library collections calls for a more collaborative approach to collections conservation. Northwestern’s location allows us to work with a diverse and talented group of allied professionals in the Chicago area. In the case of the Sargent painting, we are pleased to be working once again with Kuniej Berry Associates, LLC. Cynthia Kuniej Berry and her staff have consulted on other projects at Northwestern and carried out the initial survey of the paintings collection in 2013. Associate Paintings Conservator Emily Prehoda is cleaning the Sargent and has provided treatment information and photographs included in this post.

During the early stages of treatment, the painting was removed from its frame and photographed under ultraviolet illumination.

Photography under ultraviolet light can be particularly useful, as it allows the conservator to distinguish areas of past treatment or, in this case, the extent of varnish application. In the photo above, note the hazy green fluorescence, indicating a brush-applied natural resin type varnish. Small areas of old retouching are visible as dark marks that block fluorescence of the varnish.

One of the first stages of the conservation treatment involved removing surface grime prior to thinning the yellowed varnish.

During surface cleaning, a cotton swab was used to remove dust and grime from the painting’s surface. Surface cleaning alone can have a dramatic effect on the tonal qualities of a painting. The cotton swab was photographed against a white background in order to illustrate the amount of surface grime being removed.

Discussing the next step in the process, Emily Prehoda explains, “I’ll use the term “varnish thinning” versus “varnish removal” to indicate that the thick varnish layer is gradually being reduced overall, rather than removed completely all at once. This allows me to better consider the painting’s nuances, and the balance of shadows and highlights during the cleaning process. The varnish is thicker and heavier in the dark areas. This may be due to the artist selectively applying more varnish in dark areas to increase saturation, or a previous conservator selectively cleaning and re-varnishing the light and dark areas to different levels. Varnish thinning helps to ensure that an even, consistent varnish layer is being removed, and no areas of the artist’s possible re-working of the painting are sensitive to solvents or being adversely affected in any way.”

To illustrate her initial progress, Emily prepared the following images to highlight the effects of  varnish thinning.

During varnish thinning, the area left/below the green line has been thinned, and the right/upper side has not yet been cleaned. Note the improved saturation of colors and clarity of details in the cleaned area.

As Emily proceeds with the conservation treatment, ongoing research at Northwestern has focused on learning more about the painting and how it came into Charles Deering’s collection. We know that the painting was exhibited at the National Portrait Society in London in 1919 and believe that it was acquired by Charles Deering shortly thereafter. Additional research has focused on Dorothy Allhusen and her lifelong friendship with the English novelist Thomas Hardy. Mrs. Allhusen’s correspondence with both Sargent and Hardy documents the process of sitting for the portrait as well as Mrs. Allhusen’s initial impressions of the painting itself.

Once the treatment is completed, the Northwestern University Libraries will host a reception to unveil the newly conserved Mrs. Augustus Allhusen and to recognize the support of the Alumnae of Northwestern in preserving this important painting.


Jun 172015

I have spent the past year preparing for a course that Tonia Grafakos and I will teach on an Italian Stiff Board Vellum Binding with Slotted Spine for the Montefiascone Conservation Project Summer School. I am excited and honored to be a part of the program this year, which will celebrate 25 years of teaching preservation, conservation, and bookbinding history at the Seminario Barbarigo.

I attended my first course at Montefiascone in 1998. Having recently completed an internship at the Library of Congress, which included working on a pigment consolidation project for a collection of illuminated manuscripts, I was eager to learn more about the techniques used to create these manuscripts, and Cheryl Porter’s course on “Re-creating the Medieval Palette” presented an ideal combination of lecture and hands-on practice. The process of grinding minerals and boiling organic matter to create a range of color opened my eyes to the incredible value of recreating historical processes: understanding how an object was created through practicing historical techniques can lead to unique insights into how to go about conserving that object. In this sense, learning how to recreate historical processes and techniques becomes a fundamental aspect of training and professional development for a conservator.


Over the past 25 years, the Montefiascone Conservation Project has developed into a well-established international training ground for conservators, bookbinders and scholars: a unique place to explore bookbinding technique, book history and conservation issues in a collaborative and creative environment. The book program in particular has developed into one of the best ways to study historical structures, often in the context of a specific bookbinding selected from some of the premier rare book collections in the world.

This summer, we will be teaching the slotted parchment structure using the Northwestern Hesiod, a copy of Hesiodou tou Askraiou Erga kai hemerai (the Greek poet Hesiod’s Works and Days), printed by Bartolomeo Zanetti in Venice in 1537. The printed text is derived from a 15th century Greek manuscript currently held by the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. In preparing the course, I have been thinking about the larger issues surrounding why we study historical book structures and why the construction of historical models is so critical to the study of book conservation.

1. Developing and refining conservation skills.

Constructing historical models allows the conservator to develop bookbinding and conservation skills in a way that treatment alone does not. While most book conservators have studied traditional bookbinding techniques, such as covering with leather or constructing brass clasps, these skills are infrequently required in modern book conservation and are all too often lost. Maintaining these skills allows us to use them when needed and appropriate. More importantly, however, the continued refinement of these traditional skills allows us to spot variations in technique on the historic bindings we handle. Being able to distinguish variations can assist in dating or identifying the region of creation and lead to further insights in to the spread of bookbinding technique.

On a more personal level for the conservator, constructing a book from the beginning allows for a free expression of intent not always possible in conservation treatment. Conservation has always been an exercise in compromise and balance: artifactual value, curatorial needs, and the changing political and cultural norms that guide our work are all factors which influence the final product. At a time when so much of our work is driven by external factors beyond collections care – digitization initiatives and exhibition schedules chief among them – having the time to get lost in the details of a specific book, if only for week, can be both invigorating and rejuvenating.

2. Gaining insight into historical techniques.

There are two common approaches to recreating historical book structures: 1)constructing a facsimile binding which combines aspects of the most typical examples of the structure being studied; and 2)recreating a specific book. Both methods allow for the development of the hand skills discussed above. However, the latter approach allows us to look more closely into the physical aspects of a specific object, often requiring a higher degree of attention to detail in order to make the facsimile function in the same way.

The process of reproducing a specific binding challenges our assumptions about how the object was created in the first place and invites us to investigate specific components in detail. In the case of the Northwestern Hesiod, trying to achieve specific results has led us to a greater understanding of how the book was produced, including how the pasteboards were constructed and how the covering vellum was processed.

We look at an object and think we know how it was created, but until we try to replicate the technique, we don’t really know. With the Northwestern Hesiod, we conducted numerous experiments in order to create a modern pasteboard that mimicked the weight, feel and function of the original. The process of making these sample boards led to greater insights into the role of the pasteboard in controlling the movement of the covering vellum. As a result, one component of our course will focus on the best way to create pasteboard using modern materials.

The covering vellum also posed a challenge. After experiments with various thicknesses of vellum and various methods of application, we have developed a technique for covering with unlined vellum which greatly simplifies the process. Careful study of the covering vellum, which we believe to be a recycled 15th century manuscript heavy scraped or sanded on one side to remove the original text, led to collaboration with Jesse Meyer at Pergamena to custom produce remarkably thin vellum for our project.


3. Engaging in scholarly research.

In preparing the course on the Northwestern Hesiod, we had the opportunity to engage in traditional scholarly research at a level beyond what is typical of our day-to-day work. Our research with the Hesiod began as an effort to understand more about the slotted parchment structure and to quantify holdings in North American research libraries. Our goal was to build on research by Silvia Pugliese and, specifically, to determine the prevalence of slotted parchment bindings in collections outside Italy. In the process of studying slotted parchment bindings, however, our interest developed into learning more about Bartolomeo Zanetti and other books he printed during his time in Venice. We wanted to understand how these volumes fit into the larger economic and social context of the period, especially the rise of Protestantism and the effect of the Catholic Counter-Reformation on the Venetian book trade.

During a research trip to Venice, we had the opportunity to study the 15th century manuscript by Demetrio Damilas, Marc. Gr. IX 6 (coll.1006), which Zanetti used to create the 1537 Hesiod. In fact, the 1537 Hesiod is notable for the extensive scholia, or notes, which were copied from the Marciana manuscript. Zanetti’s efforts to edit and reproduce the scholia are remarkable. The way in which the printed book reflects the original manuscript is a fascinating case study of the intersection between manuscript and print culture and represents another aspect of research which will be discussed in our course.

Marc. gr. IX, 6 (coll. 1006)

Detail of the 15th century manuscript Zanetti consulted to produce the printed book.

Having the opportunity to engage in this level of scholarly research is important for the conservator. Understanding how individual objects are used by researchers, putting ourselves in the role of those researchers, helps inform the decisions we make about preserving artifactual value and makes us more aware of ways in which our collections are being used by scholars.

4. Collaborating with colleagues in other fields.

Our interest in the Northwestern Hesiod has allowed us to make connections with experts in the fields of both Renaissance Studies and Classical Studies. Learning more about Hesiod and Greek scholarship in the Renaissance has led us to a better understanding of why so many books were being printed in Greek in the early 16th century and the role of Greek language in the development of Italian Humanism. Learning more about the efforts of 14th century scholars such as Giovanni Boccaccio and Francesco Petrarca to revive the study of Greek and the importance of work by early teachers of Greek such as Manuel Chrysoloras has given us a better understanding of how and why the Venetian book trade developed as it did in the early 16th century and why the study of Greek texts was so important at this time.

In addition, our interest in the covering vellum and what the recycled manuscript might reveal has led to consultation with NU-ACCESS and the possibility of research using multispectral imaging and X-ray fluorescence to uncover the text on the manuscript.

We are particularly interested in the manuscript text as it may shed new light on the kinds of manuscripts which were being dismantled during the early 16th century. It is possible that the extensive marginal notes on the manuscript may reveal unique commentary, even if the principal text is not itself unique.


The making of historical book models represents one of the best ways to explore firsthand the complex nature of book structure and to develop insights into conservation technique. Moreover, the study and construction of historical models represents a unique opportunity for anyone, from amateur bookbinder to experienced conservator, to engage with history in a way that few people can.  If you have never experienced the Montefiascone Conservation Project Summer School, I invite you to join us for this year’s extraordinary anniversary program.

May 012015


This spring, the Northwestern University Library Preservation Department curated the exhibit “Beyond the Book: The Changing Nature of Library Collections,” which highlights some of the Library’s rare and interesting objects that have received conservation attention in the past few years. In celebration of Preservation Week (April 26 – May 2, 2015), the blog will feature daily posts highlighting exhibit objects that posed some of the more complex research questions and interesting treatment decisions.

Charles Deering (1852-1927), for whom Deering Library was named, was an avid art collector and artist in his own right. In addition to collecting Spanish and Catalan art, Deering formed lasting friendships with many of the leading artists of his day and amassed a rich collection of portraits by close friends such as John Singer Sargent, Anders Zorn, Carl Larsson and Ramon Casas. Many of the paintings from Charles Deering’s personal collection were chosen to decorate Deering Library when it opened in 1933 and remain important works in the University Library’s collection.

The library’s painting of Erik Satie by Ramon Casas (El Bohemio, 1891) is one of our most requested paintings for loan and exhibition and recently underwent an extensive conservation treatment. Northwestern contracted with a local fine art conservator to perform the treatment.

El Bohemio, 1891. Portrait of Erik Satie by Ramon Casas. After treatment, unframed.

El Bohemio, 1891. Portrait of Erik Satie by Ramon Casas. After treatment, unframed.

In addition to repairs to the canvas, a varnish layer applied in the 1970s was removed. Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) was commonly used to varnish paintings in the 1970s. Over time, the PVA becomes gray and opaque and, as a result, the painting had taken on a hazy appearance. After conservators removed the PVA varnish, they noticed that there were still areas of the painting with a dull gray appearance. Sample testing and examination using a range of analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicated that these gray areas were likely a result of lead sulfate migrating up through the paint from the ground layer. The lead sulfate, which is insoluble in alcohol and other common conservation solvents, could not be removed. In order to minimize the visual disturbance of the lead sulfate, the decision was made to apply a thin wash of translucent pigment on top of the new Paraloid B-72 varnish layer in the gray areas. This is a reversible treatment that reflects the artist’s intent and allows the true colors of the painting to show through.


The painting was featured last year in a groundbreaking exhibition at the Schirn Kunsthalle in Frankfurt. The exhibit, Esprit Montmartre: Bohemian Life in Paris around 1900, looked at Montmartre as a center of artistic life with a particular focus on individuals like Satie and Casas.

The Esprit Montmartre exhibition provided an opportunity to share El Bohemio with a large audience at an international venue after its recent conservation treatment. The exhibition also promoted Northwestern’s unique library collections in a global environment.

The Preservation Department is currently working on a comprehensive survey of other paintings in the collection in order to develop a plan for preserving Charles Deering’s legacy as an art collector.

Apr 232015


The ‘Umar Falke Collection is the largest of the four Arabic manuscript collections held by the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies and consists of over 3,000 items, the majority of which are 19th and early 20th century manuscripts written in a wide variety of inks on single unbound sheets of paper. The collection, which is housed in traditional leather wrappers, represents the intact library of ‘Umar Falke, a prominent Nigerian trader, scholar and author, and contains manuscripts on all aspects of Islamic learning and protective medicine. The collection is particularly strong in works on Sufism and in almost all the branches of Islamic sciences as well as Maliki law and jurisprudence, theology, literature, and grammar.


An example of a manuscript page with colored inks

The Falke Collection was chosen for an extensive preservation needs assessment survey. The purpose of the survey was to gather a complex range of information about the condition of paper, inks, and housings that would impact the conservation and digitization of such a large manuscript collection. A subsequent pilot project included repairing and digitizing selected manuscripts to determine treatment protocols and guidelines for image capture. At the 2014 conference of The Islamic Manuscript Association held at University of Cambridge, Scott Devine, Marie A. Quinlan Director of Preservation and Conservation, and Chief Conservator Tonia Grafakos presented a paper about the history of the collection, results of the survey, and potential for new research initiatives.

The uniqueness of the Falke Collection, coupled with growing scholarly interest in the intellectual history of West Africa, make it a prime candidate for both scholarly research and digitization. Ongoing work with the collection is underway, including a rehousing project and the development of research initiatives related to materials analysis. NUL’s Conservation Fellow, Graham Patten, is currently analyzing the yellow pigments found throughout the manuscripts; details of this investigation will be featured in upcoming posts.

Treatment documentation of losses

Treatment documentation of edge repairs

Apr 162015

Northwestern conservators are currently engaged in a research project which has allowed us to explore the relationship between manuscript and print culture in Renaissance Italy as well as the possibilities for using multispectral imaging and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to unlock the secrets behind a recycled vellum manuscript used to cover a 16th century Italian binding.

Northwestern holds a rare copy of Hesiodou tou Askraiou Erga kai hemerai (the Greek poet Hesiod’s Works and Days), printed by Bartolomeo Zanetti in Venice in 1537. The printed text is derived from a 15th century Greek manuscript currently held by the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice.

Scott Devine and Tonia Grafakos will teach a course on the Northwestern Hesiod in August 2015 at the Montefiascone Conservation Project Summer School. Course participants will recreate the original binding and learn more about the results of our ongoing research. The course description and images below provide additional details.

Montefiascone Conservation Project Summer School
Week Two: 3-7 August 2015

Italian Stiff-Board Vellum Binding with Slotted Spine

This course will explore the use of parchment as a covering material for stiff-board bindings. Participants will recreate a vellum over boards binding of Hesiod’s Works and Days printed by Bartolomeo Zanetti in Venice in 1537. This style of binding was used in Venice c. 1490 – 1670 and often characterized by the use of recycled vellum manuscripts applied flesh side out. The binding features sewing supports covered with alum tawed patches; the vellum over the patches is cut away, creating small slots which allow for greater flexibility in opening. Additional structural features, including transverse spine linings and a wide fore edge turn-in, help to balance the tension of the vellum on the boards and limit warping.

Drawing on their recent study of similar bindings at the New York Public Library, the Newberry Library and the University of Chicago, course tutors will discuss how this binding style evolved and eventually fell out of use, providing an interesting case study of the economics and aesthetics of 16th and early 17th century Venetian book production.

Some knowledge and experience of bookbinding or book history would be useful, but is not essential. All materials will be supplied at a nominal cost. Participants will need to bring basic bookbinding tools. The tutors will contact prospective students well in advance of the class with suggested readings and a list of recommended tools.

To register or learn more, visit The Montefiascone Project.